Saturday, May 31, 2008

Getting on the Dow Jones Sustainability Index

Do you ever wonder how companies get labeled as "sustainable" by Wall Street? Well, I did, so I took a look at the The Dow Jones Sustainability Index. Interestingly, it's evaluation criteria includes more than sustainability factors, it also has economic and social considerations in their assessment criteria. Things like corporate governance, risk and crisis management, corporate citizenship, human capital development and talent attraction and retention, among others.

The survey they give companies trying to get on their index has some good questions. Here are the ones related to the environment:

Has your company adopted a corporate environmental policy?

Please indicate whether your corporate environmental policy applies to 1) company's own operations, 2) environmental impacts of products & services, 3) suppliers & service providers, 4) other key business partners.

Please indicate how your environmental management system is verified/ audited/ certified (i.e. ISO 14001, JIS Q 14001, EMAS certification by third party).

Please indicate the percentage of total revenues verified/audited/certified according to these systems.

Please indicate your reduction targets and explain the trend and the performance against the target (for total direct GHG emissions, total energy consumption, total water use, total waste generation).

That's it. That's all of their questions. But you know, as simple as they are, could your company answer them? There's a lot of measurement and accountability embedded in these. If you're thinking of taking on some of the enviornmental issues in your company, these questions are not a bad place to start.

Wednesday, May 28, 2008

Shredding is FUN

Last night I was cleaning out my desk at home and shredding receipts and junk mail. As I was doing this I thought back to a factoid one of my friends had spewed out at a recent event (she’s studying for the LEED exam): by turning down ATM receipts, we can save enough paper to circle the equator 15 times (source: Serve to Preserve)

This got me thinking about where else we can cut paper out of our lives. I did a bit of research and these are a couple of the cool ways people are reducing receipts:
  • Receipt choice – many retailers offer you the choice of whether you get a receipt or not. If you don’t need it (thank you credit/debit card bill), don’t take it.
  • Double-sided receipts – Sainsburys is a European retailer who offers double-sided receipts
  • Online receipts – allEtronic is now offering a service whereby you can get your receipts from participating retailers such as Best Buy and Target online
  • E-mail receipts – While most online vendors already offer this, some bricks & mortar vendors are looking into it as well (Starwood hotels, Apple, National Car Rental)
  • Shorter receipts – some retailers are reducing the length of their receipts to improve efficiency, cut costs, and respond to consumer concerns
Image Source: Money Walks

Tuesday, May 27, 2008

The Inconvenient Truth of Being Green

Wired Magazine recently published an article called Inconvenient Truths: Get Ready to Rethink What It Means to Be Green. They suggested that being green doesn't always mean what we think it should.

A couple of their protested "heresies":

1) If a new Prius were placed head-to-head with a used car, would the Prius win? Don't bet on it. Making a Prius consumes 113 million BTUs, according to sustainability engineer Pablo Päster. A single gallon of gas contains about 113,000 Btus, so Toyota's green wonder guzzles the equivalent of 1,000 gallons before it clocks its first mile. A used car, on the other hand, starts with a significant advantage: The first owner has already paid off its carbon debt. Buy a decade-old Toyota Tercel, which gets a respectable 35 mpg, and the Prius will have to drive 100,000 miles to catch up.

2) Cut down old trees. Over its lifetime, a tree shifts from being a vacuum cleaner for atmospheric carbon to an emitter. A tree absorbs roughly 1,500 pounds of CO2 in its first 55 years. After that, its growth slows, and it takes in less carbon. Left untouched, it ultimately rots or burns and all that CO2 gets released.

Makes you think, doesn't it? It's this kind of critical thinking that we're going to need to apply as we act as individuals to save the globe. We need people willing to state what may seem controversial or counter-intuitive. Our problems can't be solved with a majic product or service, but long term, consistent thinking about our actions.

My own heresy? I work for an architectural firm but think we need to build less. We'll have to in order to meet the goals federal, state and local governments have already or will soon set. We need to use what we've got which means living and working more frugally when it comes to space.

The Expense Report

Many of us work in fields where once in a while we have to spend our own money for a business expense. Generally, this is not a big deal, but it does require some effort to submit an expense report – both personal effort and sustainable impact. Here are a couple of thoughts about how to green the process:

  1. Direct deposit. Rather than sending a check, companies should be able to directly deposit reimbursements into your account.
  2. Receipt requirement. I understand why receipts are required (fraud, etc); however, it is “greener” to not get a receipt at all (think ATM, gas pump, etc). Many transactions are made by credit card or bank card and are tracked by the issuing financial institution. I know in my personal life I try to avoid getting receipts because it means I’ll have to shred them later (annoyance factor trumps green factor, but end result is the same). If companies could accept credit card statements in lieu of receipts, this could help reduce the amount of wasted paper (and for those of us that occasionally lose receipts when travelling, could help cut employees losses).
  3. Receipt submission. Employees should be encouraged to tape their receipts to the backs of used paper, rather than printing out a special “receipt page.”
  4. Paperless submission. Some companies already do this, some do not, and some (like mine) are in the process of converting. We currently have to type up our reports, print them out, tape our receipts to a blank sheet of paper (recycled back sides are ok) and ship them overnight to accounting. They are then scanned and reviewed virtually. More sustainable measures would be:
  • Bundling expense reports weekly/bi-weekly – results in fewer packages shipped.
  • Scanning and sending directly to accounting from our multi-function printers – eliminates need for overnight shipping.
  • Online submission – no printing required.

Any other ideas on how to green your expense report submission process?

Image Source:

Monday, May 26, 2008

UK considers personal carbon credits

The a committee of UK Members of Parliament have said that the government should go ahead with a system of personal "carbon credits" to meet emissions targets.

Under such a scheme people would be given an annual carbon limit for fuel and energy use - which they could exceed by buying credits from those who use less.

The Committee said the scheme would be more effective than taxes for cutting carbon emissions. The Committee chairman Tim Yeo said that "green" taxes, such as a petrol tax, cost poor people more because everyone - "billionaires and paupers" - paid the same amount.
Yeo said: "Under the personal carbon trading, someone who perhaps doesn't have an enormous house or swimming pool, someone who doesn't take several holidays in the Caribbean every year, will actually get a cash benefit if they keep a low carbon footprint."

Unfortunately the UK government are not funding any more research into personal carbon credits as Ministers said there were practical drawbacks to the proposal. For these drawbacks see the BBC article here.

Tuesday, May 20, 2008

NRDC Greening Advisor

The National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) has created a Greening Advisor site for small and medium sized companies interested in greening their organization.

"The Greening Advisor is a free and easily accessible resource that points the way towards cost savings and environmental responsibility,” said Frances Beinecke, president of NRDC. “With the Greening Advisor as a guide, greening a business or organization no longer needs to be a daunting task, but an achievable goal that can be integrated into every company’s mission."
The site takes the next step for companies interested in developing their own committments and strategies for the environment by creating "boiler plate" policy documents as well as tactical strategies for going green. For example, environmental language in contracts, environmental purchasing policy and the like. I may have to steal a few of these!

The UK-based Sunday Times puts together an annual list of the 'Best Companies to Work For'. For the first time, The Sunday Times has put together a 'Green List 2008', the newspaper's first competition to find companies that are striving to improve their environmental performance.

The Sunday Times say they launched this venture to reflect the changing mood in the business world, as today it is not enough simply to make a profit for shareholders. Companies have a wider responsibility to ensure that they minimise the environmental impact of what they do. Consumers, clients and peers expect it.

According to The Sunday Times, the 50 companies listed in the Green List 2008 are all pioneers — "enterprising, enlightened and fizzing with new ideas". They vary from Greencare H2O, a business employing just 50 people distributing watercoolers, to the banking giant HBOS, which has a staff of 74,000. The one thing that unites these diverse companies is the common sense of purpose about their corporate social responsibility.

Interestingly, 3 of the top 10 companies are construction and arichtectual firms: Carillion (2), Skanska UK (5) and MCM Architecture (9). For the full top 50 Green List 2008 list click here.

Monday, May 19, 2008

David Douglass with Sun Microsystems

I'm always scrolling around looking for what smart leaders are doing when it comes to corporate social sustainability. I was surprized and pleased to find out about David Douglass, Sun Microsystem's VP of Eco Responsibility. What impressed be most about David was not his position - OK, yes, he's the head green guru for a company of 30,000 people - but his blog. David share's his thoughts with the rest of the world on Sun's environment blog and he really tells it like it is. No candy coating, just real, hands in the dirt kind of stuff.

Check out a recent entry in his blog, "Black, White and Shades of Green." Here's an excerpt:

I've written before about the lack of magic answers, as much as we'd all love to find them. When you take any societal-scale process or product and think you've found a totally clean, side effect free, economically viable substitute for it, you're almost surely delusional. Any substitution will have other, new side effects, and we absolutely need to try to be accounting for them.

Recycling your Bottles?

Poor naive me, I really thought that the majority of people were actually recycling, but a couple of incidents over the past few days have brought my naivety to my attention.

Incident #1: Office Conference Room – Trash can full of plastic cups and aluminum cans.
Incident #2: Office Cleaning Staff – dumping recycling into trash Incident #3: Friend Visiting my Home – “You’re really into green, I mean, you guys even recycle here.”

Then I read an article that confirmed my suspicions: “Bottles, Bottles, Everywhere…Can you give up bottled water?” This article addresses the myriad issues associated with drinking bottled water, including carbon footprint impacts, use of oil to generate bottles, and water use in bottle production. None of this was particularly surprising, as the war on plastic water bottles has resulted in a flood of information on all of the negative impacts (note: we should all be drinking tap water from reusable containers).

What did surprise me were the stats on recycling:

  • Less than 20 percent of the 28 billion single-serving water bottles that Americans buy each year are recycled
  • National recycling rate for all beverage containers is 33 percent
  • In states with deposit systems, this jumps to 65-95 percent
  • 11 states have deposit systems; only three of these include deposit requirements for non-carbonated beverages
  • Non-carbonated beverages now comprise 27 percent of the market
I questioned whether these stats were legit or not, and did some internet research. This is what I discovered:

Check out the article as well as the other resources, and be sure to recycle both at work and in your home!

Image Source:

Saturday, May 17, 2008

Alternative Work is Really, Really Green

I work with companies that embrace alternative work. Alternative, meaning work gets done, but it could happen at any time (after the kids are in bed) or any place (at home, in a cafe, at the office, etc.) This ability to work anywhere and any time is enabled by technology and helps employees juggle personal and professional life. Though workers may give up having an assigned seat, the ability to work in a more flexible way is generally perceived as a net benefit. The benefit for companies adopting alternative work is that they reduce real estate. And they save a lot of money.

Sprint shed 2.4 million square feet of space from 2005 to 2007 and 900,000 square feet will be released in 2008 through their adoption of “work anywhere” environments. This will create an annual savings of $80 million for the company starting in 2009.

American Express has projected annual cost avoids of $17 to $20 million through their initiatives to build high-performance work spaces based on actual occupancy, not headcount.

Here's the green headline here... companies that adopt alternative work are taking on one of the most environmentally beneficial strategies available to them - they are reducing their carbon footprint to begin with.

Alternative work reduces carbon footprint by reducing the amount of resources needed to build larger buildings and to incrementally operate them (energy, water, etc.) AND... they reduce the amount of energy needed to commute to work (note earlier TGW post that employees use twice as much energy commuting than they do occupying their office).

Think about it for your company. In the wise words of Mies van der Rohe, "less is more."

The Green Workplace Receives a 9.0!

I'm not familar with Blogged, but appartently it is a site that rates the quality of blogs across the internet. I just received the following email from their marketing department:

Dear Leigh Stringer,

Our editors recently reviewed your blog and have given it a 9.0 score out of (10) in the Society category of is quite an achievement!

We evaluated your blog based on the following criteria: Frequency of Updates, Relevance of Content, Site Design, and Writing Style. After carefully reviewing each of these criteria, your site was given its 9.0 score.

Congrats to our bloggers for a job well done! Keep it up.

Wednesday, May 14, 2008

Eating in your Courtyard?

I just read a highly amusing article: “The ultimate ethical meal: a grey squirrel.” I’ve always joked with my dad (who grew up on a farm) about eating squirrels country-style, but never really thought about it as a sustainable food source. Granted, a lot of this comes with the fact that I’m a softie for animals and have a hard time thinking about cute fluffy creatures being ground into food!

Regardless, this article talks about the upswing in the popularity of squirrel meat in England. Squirrel has some good eco-advantages as a meal: It’s free-range, it doesn’t generate a lot of methane, and it’s locally available and quite abundant! Of course, there are plenty of downsides, too (health of the squirrels available, destruction of ecosystems and populations, etc.)

I’m not sure I’m going to try these recipes or recommend them for the corporate cafeteria, but it’s definitely ‘food’ for thought.

Sustainable Mail

I came across this organization and thought it was something to share, because I know everyone is as annoyed as I am with Junk Mail.. stops your junk mail and catalogs — protecting the environment. Junk mail wastes an incredible amount of natural resources and contributes to global warming.

Time — No credit card offers to shred or unwanted catalogs.

Trees — Keep 100+ million trees in forests, cooling the planet.

Water — Protect 28 billion gallons of clean water.

Climate — Junk mail produces more C02 than 2.8 million cars.

Planet — We donate to your favorite charity when you sign up.
Go Check it Out..

Monday, May 12, 2008

Greenville, USA

Green technology is everywhere! A new virtual town "Greenville, USA" was created recently to demonstrate power of technology and energy efficiency.

The tool was created by the Technology CEO Council, a lobbying group made up of CEOs Michael Dell (Dell), Mark Hurd (HP), Samuel Palmisano (IBM), Paul Otellini (Intel), Joe Tucci (EMC), Mike Splinter (Applied Materials), and others.

The graphics are fairy simple, but there are several good nuggets of ways to leverage technology in your home or business. Some interesting tidbits:
  • Use thin client - less heat is created by centralized hard drives
  • No left hand turns with truck deliveries - minimizes time on the road and carbon emissions
  • Consider the new ultra mobile PCs requiring 1/10 power required from first gen PCs
  • Real time energy pricing
  • Watt meter that measures all electrical devices in the home
  • Use cell phone waiting lots at the airport - don't keep driving in circles!

Lots of good intel. We have the technology - now it's time to use it!

Sunday, May 11, 2008

Social Responsibility and the Blogosphere

I found a fantastic article called Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in the Blogosphere recently. Required reading for all green bloggers and written by Edelman and First&42nd, it dives into the many issues important to bloggers in general and how social issues fit into the big picture. They came to a number of conclusions, all of which are listed here:

  • The majority of CSR and sustainability blog conversations focus on the environment.

  • NGOs and companies alike have shown little interest in engaging the blogosphere on CSR issues.

  • Traditional NGO campaigns addressing CSR topics do not register among blogs.

  • The main CSR influencers in the blogosphere are individuals, not institutions.

  • Bloggers are commenting on CSR and sustainability topics – they are not reporting new information.

  • The main source of CSR and sustainability information for bloggers is the mainstream media (MSM).

  • The blogosphere is open to any institutional voice ready to engage.

Fascinating. What caught my attention most was the fact that green blogs (as a whole) tend to take information and comment about it (similar to many political blogs) rather than report real news. Some of the best blogs are really taking on the reporter role: interviewing building owners, sharing new technologies via video and "taking on" companies that appear to be green washing or flashing green bling with no larger green strategy in mind.

The other interesting tidbit was the fact that companies and NGOs have not caught on to the power of these thousands of individual reporters and their networked relationship to each other. In some ways, having bloggers separate from companies makes their reporting more credible / third-party, but individual bloggers need really deep pockets to investigate issues that companies and NGOs are more easily able to address.

I can't tell exactly, but it looks like this article was written in late 2006. I feel confident that some of what they suggest has changed, but it's good intel regardless.

Green Buildings Pay

I was recently introduced to a CoStar report that got me very excited. It compares LEED certified and Energy Star buildings against those that are not across the US real estate market. The results of the study are astounding... they show that green buildings achieve higher rents, higher occupancy, have lower operating costs and achieve higer prices per square foot. Now what developer or building owner in their right might would choose anything but a green building!

That said, it turns out that one of my esteemed colleagues used this study in a recent presentation to pension real estate leaders and they were not so happy with the methodology used. They felt the analysis was not consistent in grouping unlike buildings together and the conclusions should not be drawn across all regions.

They did provide her with a bunch of additional articles that had similar findings. Here's a excerpt from a UBS study, How Will Green Construction Affect REITs?, they liked.

According to a survey done by McGraw-Hill, there is a 2% higher initial cost to go green, but over the long run, the benefits will outweigh the initial higher construction costs. These benefits include:

Operating costs: Average expected decrease of operating costs between 8% and 9% across the industry.

Building values: Average increase in values expected around 7.5%.

Return on investment (ROI): Average ROI expected to improve 6.6%.

Occupancy ratio: Occupancy rate expected to increase by 3.5%.

Rent ratio: On average, rents expected to increase by 3%.

Please comment and share other good studies you've found.

Saturday, May 10, 2008 save the planet

One of the benefits of working at an architecture firm is occasionally getting to try out some new products to see if they are something that we might recommend to a client.  Whether it is carpet tile, wall finish material, or furniture, it is always fun and makes you think really critically about the products and their application.  Just this week, I had a chance to try out something really exciting.....a new shower head.  I'm not kidding, I was actually really excited.  I had an old shower head that used to just spit water out at an alarming fast in fact, that I would always run out of hot water in about 2 minutes.  In the midst of studying hard for my LEED exam, I realized that 340 billion gallons of water are withdrawn everyday for our use.  My new Oxygenics shower head is quite an improvement in many ways.  I've found that my water pressure has increased, I have a much better looking shower, the oxygen content in the water has increased drastically (better for your skin), and I have been saving a ton of water! 

It only uses a maximum of 1.9 gallons per minute.  (Just for clarification, I have no relationship with Oxygenics).  There are a lot of manufacturers that make great water efficient fixtures.  While they may be a slightly higher initial investment, the payback is typically very quick. Check the calculator on the Oxygenics website (   So if you are considering putting some new showers in your home or office consider one of these low flow fixtures.           

Wednesday, May 7, 2008

Climate Counts is Cool

I heard about this tool from a fellow tree-hugger: Climate Counts is a nonprofit organization that ranks companies based on their environmental track record. It’s a very cool site – I’ve been playing around on it this morning and found out that some of my favorite companies are doing really well and others could use some improvement.

For more information, check out their press release:

Climate Counting More with Consumer Companies
84% of Companies Show Improvement in 2nd Climate Counts Company Scorecard
Transparency is Critical to Consumers
(May 7th, 2008) Climate Counts' second annual Company Scorecard shows scored companies making climate improvements across most industry sectors. 84 percent of the scored companies —among them some of the world's largest -- made improvements in their efforts to reduce greenhouse gases and to make information about those actions actions easily accessible to consumers. The Scorecard, first released in June 2007, scores 56 major corporations in well-known consumer sectors – from apparel to electronics to fast food – on their commitment to reversing climate change.

"Business is being pushed by consumers to do their part to solve the climate crisis," said Gary Hirshberg, chair of Climate Counts and CEO of organic yogurt maker Stonyfield Farm. "The Scorecard allows consumers to make good climate decisions in their everyday purchases,and it's having an impact."

Google, Anheuser-Busch and Levi Strauss had the largest score improvement among those scores, each jumping over 20 points. Improvement was broad however, with the average company score improving 22 percent over last year. Nike passed last year's high scorer, Canon, to as the top scored company.
"Company transparency is critical to allowing consumers to make good decisions," said Wood Turner, Project Director. "The time for companies to just say 'trust us, we're good on climate' has passed, consumers want to see the proof behind the green claims. They want to know it's not just marketing talk, but real substantive action."

It wasn't all good climate news. Five companies scored one or zero points: Jones Apparel Group; and four companies from the Food Services sector, Burger King, Darden Restaurants (which owns popular restaurants Red Lobster and Olive Garden), Yum! Brands (parent to Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, and KFC) and Wendy's. The Food Services sector has the lowest average (11.5 out of 100) of any of the eight sectors measured with smallest overall improvement. There were a total of ten companies – down from 18 last year – scoring in the lowest tier of companies, or under 12 points overall.

"We're excited by the level of interest in the Scorecard by both consumers and business," said Turner. "In order to expand our reach and applicability, we'll be expanding the number of companies we monitor later this year."

The companies were scored on a scale from one to 100, based on 22 criteria that fall within four benchmarks: whether they measure their carbon footprint; what efforts they have made to reduce their own climate impact; whether they support or oppose global-warming legislation; and what they disclose to the public about their work to address climate change. Consumers can review all the company scores and download a pocket-sized shopping guide at Consumers will also be able to look up companies' rankings by texting "cc company name" (for example, "cc Nike") to 30644 from their cell phones so they can make climate-friendly consumer decisions while they shop. An expansion of Climate Counts' mobile phone activism program is planned for later this summer.

Tuesday, May 6, 2008

Give Yourself a Lift

Many of you may live or work in a building that has an elevator…or at least you’ve ridden in one at least once in your lifetime. This is particularly true if you live in a dense urban environment….which is great – yay density! That said, as you might suspect, elevators take energy to function, thereby increasing a building’s carbon footprint.

Many elevator manufacturers are developing energy efficient elevators and technologies to retrofit existing elevators. Instead of even attempting to pretend I am an elevator expert, here are a few links to articles about “green” elevators:

In the case that your building has an older energy hog elevator (or even if it has a new, energy-efficient model), here are a few things you can do to help reduce its impact:
  • Group your trips – instead of going up and down multiple times per day, try to consolidate your trips into just a few (get coffee and go to the bank on the same trip) – it will save both time and energy.
  • Hold the door for the person running toward you – it will only cost you a few seconds, make that person very happy, and may save an elevator trip.
  • Take the stairs – it's good for your glutes as well as the environment.

Image source: Flickr

Monday, May 5, 2008

Demographics and Sustainability

One of the most interesting sessions I attended at the APA Conference was “America at One Billion” – given by Robert Lang and Arthur C. Nelson (“Chris”) from Virginia Tech’s Metropolitan Institute.

This presentation discussed the possibility/probability of America reaching a population of one billion. The presenters agreed that it is quite likely that we will reach 1/2 billion by mid-century (America rolled 300 million in October 2006), and that one billion is not an unreasonable guesstimate for the turn of the century. According to the speakers, this gives the US a growth rate of 1 to 1.5% per year, and faster growth in sheer numbers than any country other than India or Pakistan.

The growth will come from a high birth rate (the speakers estimate approximately 2.12 children per woman of childbearing age), longevity (average lifespan of 79 years) and high rates of legal immigration (nearly ¾ of which is relatives of existing legal residents).

So what does this mean for the environment? Will our carbon footprint increase in direct proportion to population growth? The speakers argued no: The US is very well prepared and trends are pointing toward greater use of sustainable principles. Lang suggested that innovation will get us out of the ‘oil age’: “The stone age didn’t end because we ran out of stones.”

One of the many suggestions of the presentation was to think about redevelopment of existing sites rather than continued expansion into greenfields. Mr. Lang suggested that existing parking lots presented a tremendous redevelopment opportunity: they are large, flat and drained; there is infrastructure already in place, they are already zoned and used for non-residential purposes; they are accessible; and, many are transit-ready.

To view the presentations, check out the MI website (they are not up yet, but there are a number of other interesting presentations available):

Image source: PeopleJam

Sunday, May 4, 2008

Green Cleaning Products (from BGTV)

Friday, May 2, 2008

Co-Working: Don't Work at Home Alone!

Thursday, May 1, 2008

Space Allocation and Parking

I'm at the American Planning Association's National Conference this week - it's been a lot of fun and I've attended lots of very interesting sessions - you will see more posts about what I've learned over the next couple of days.

One session I attended really sticks out, and not for the reason the presenter intended. The session was called "The Environment and Sustainability in Transit Evaluation" by Eric Bruun. His discussion focused on how to incorporate monetary, non-monetary, quantitative, and qualitative variables into a cost/benefit analysis for transit.

The "aha" moment for me had not to do with transit evaluation, but with one simple sentence: "the average office gives more space per employee for parking than it does for their office." Shocking, but true! Let's look at the numbers:

  • Office - 64 to 150 NSF/person. 64 SF for a workstation/cubicle; 150 SF for an office.
  • Parking - 170 - 290 SF/car. Size depends on configuration (perpendicular, angled, parallel, etc.) and zoning laws.
Useable: (I think this is the better measure because it applies to any office employee, regardless of whether they sit in a workstation or office)
  • Office - 200 USF/person is a GSA standard. This includes not only your desk/office, but also your share of circulation around your desk, part of the conference room, pantry, copy room, etc.
  • Parking - 275 to 350 SF/car. This includes circulation around the parking lot.
Of course there are lots of factors playing in, such as does the office provide parking on a 1 spot: 1 employee ratio or less. Regardless, it really made me think, and could be a great argument when talking to clients about reasons to locate near transit, encourage carpools, etc.

Image source: Copely Society

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